Shame On Who? Experimentally Reducing Shame During Political Arguments on Twitter

Hand typing on a smartphone in a dimly lit bar or restaurant.
Photo by Alex Ware on Unsplash
This table displays how shared identity was effective at boosting respectful responses and reducing shaming responses, but being respectful only increased respectful responses without affecting shaming responses.
The fourth row of this table shows how using respect in outgroup conversations (Outgroup & Respectful) resulted in similar quality of conversations as neutral disagreements with an ingroup (Ingroup & Neutral).

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